## NOETHER, AMALIE "EMMY"

Mathematician, (1882 - 1935)
She was a mathematician in the first half of the
20th century, receiving her Ph.D. from the University of Erlangen in 1907. She resolved a nagging puzzle in Einstein's theory of gravity.
In thep rocess she proved a revolutionary mathematical theorem that changed the ways scientists study the universe. (See *Science News* June 23, 2018 for
more information.
Her work in group theory, ring theory, group representations and number
theory was fundamental to further mathematical principles and would prove useful to physicists and crystallographers.
Noether's Theorem (done in 1918) is named for her.
She is known for her work in ideal theory and non-associative algebras.
Denied recognition for her work most of her life, in 1932 she received the Alfred Ackermann-Teubner
Memorial Prize for the Advancement of Mathematical Sciences.

Early in her career she was not
permitted to hold a paid position, so she taught for no pay so that she could
use the university facilities for her work. For a short time, she even had to teach under the
name of David Hilbert, whom she worked with at Gottingen University.She did not receive a salary until 1923.
The Nazi government forced the Jewish Noether out of her job and
she moved to the United States to take a guest professorship at Bryn Mawr. She lived for less than two more years when she died from
complications from surgery.
At her death Einstein volunteered
to write her obituary:

*In the judgement of the most competent living mathematicians, Fraulein
Noether was the most significant creative mathematical genius thus far
produced since the higher education of women began. In the realm of algebra
in which the most gifted mathematicians have been busy for centuries she
discovered methods which have proved of enormous importance in the development
of present day younger generation of mathematicians.*

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More information may be found at
St. Andrews*

the Association for Women in Mathematics and

the San Diego Super Computer Center

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And look for more information about Noether's Theorem.
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